Ensenada is located on Bahía de Todos Santos 67 miles south of the U.S. international border. The first settlement was made here in 1804, with a population boom in 1870 from the discovery of gold 22 miles inland at Real del Castillo. The city served as the capital of the Baja territory from 1882 to 1915 before it was shifted to Mexicali during the Mexican Revolution.
Today, Ensenada is the most sophicated and well-rounded of the northern coastal towns. It is a fairly wealthy city with a heavy tourist draw of about 4 million people a year. Most tourists are drawn to Avenida López Mateos, a lushly landscaped street lined with trendy shops, cafés, restaurants and many hotels. Ensenada is also the center of Baja's wine industry.