Leavenworth is named in honor of Col. Henry Leavenworth who founded Ft. Leavenworth in 1827. The city was incorporated in 1854 – seven years prior the statehood – and claims to be the "First City of Kansas." The city had a notable role along the routes of the Oregon, Santa Fe and California trails west from Independence, MO. Later, the U. S. Army Command and General Staff College was founded by Gen. William T. Sherman. Famous faculty and graduates include: George C. Marshall, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George Patton and Colin Powell. Inmates at the Federal Penitanitary have included: Gangster Al Capone, Machine Gun Kelly and Robert Stroud, the "birdman of Alcatraz." Notable figures born in the city include actor Richard Sanders and entertainer Melissa Etheridge. Leavenworth is considered to be part of the metropolitan Kansas City area.