Chuloshan, the original name of Chia-Yi, was given from two reason sources: one phonetically resembled the tribe name Tirosen, as named by the Dutch, and the other came from a semantic utterance indicating "Mountains Located in the East."
Chuloshan was once the place where people from Chinese mainland immigrated on a large scale. In early 1621, Yen Szu-chi, who was from Changchou, Fuchien Province first led his people to cultivate this land after they landed at Penkang (Peikang). Then Dutch colonialism began as 1624. At an early stage, Anping Harbor and Tainan Dutch City were under Dutch control. After the Ping-putribe spreading around Chuloshan was controlled by Dutch, Dutch started to develop his area. Hung Mao Pei (the Lan Lake Reservoir now) was constructed by the Dutch at this time.
When Taiwan was handed over to the Republic of China in 1945, Chia-Yi City was elevated to a provincial city under the jurisdiction of Taiwan Province. In 1950, because of the re-allocation of administrative areas in which Taiwan was divided into 16 counties, 5 provincial cities, and a special bureau, Chia-Yi City was downgraded to a county-government status. As a result, a shortage of capital largely hindered its development. On July 1, 1982, it was elevated again to a provincial city as a result of pressure from local elites.