L'Hospitalet de Llobregat or L'Hospitalet is a city to the immediate south west of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, and the second largest in Catalonia by population. L'Hospitalet de Llobregat is notable for being one of the most densely populated cities not just in Spain but also in the European Union.
The first records of the settlement date to the Neolithic era with artefacts showing human habitation in the Llobregat river area. Roman artefacts have been found dating to the 2nd Century B.C. such as a funereal decoration representing the head of Medusa now in the archaeological museum of Barcelona. However it is not until the 10th Century that written references to Provençana (the cities original name) appear. The current name originates from the Catalan language and references a hostel adjacent to the Church 'Santa Eulalia de Provençana' used by pilgrims in the middle ages. The city retained the character of a village until the 18th century when the first textile factories where built causing a population boom. The 1960s and 1970s saw a second population boom, caused by immigration from poorer regions of Spain. However this population boom was not matched by the construction of the necessary amenities and it was only in the 1990s when public investment resulted in additional schools, leisure facilities and housing.